تحلیلی بر مفهوم و کاربرد پیش خورد در طراحی تعاملی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه طراحی صنعتی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

اصطلاح "پیش خورد" از نظریه کنترل اقتباس شده و کمتر از دو دهه است که به حوزه طراحی تعاملی معرفی شده است؛ اما متاسفانه طراحان هنوز اطلاع کافی و درک مناسبی از مفهوم و کاربرد آن در محصولات تعاملی ندارند و ابهام فراوان بین مفاهیم پیش خورد، بازخورد و افردنس، عامل دیگری است که باعث گردیده تا کمتر در طراحی تعاملی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. بر این اساس، هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل مفهوم و کاربرد اصطلاح پیش خورد و ارائه مثالهای کاربردی در جهت رفع ابهام و شفاف سازی کاربرد آن در حوزه طراحی تعاملی است تا طراحان بتوانند ضمن اشراف بر موضوع، به درستی از آن در محصولات و سطوح رابط کاربری استفاده نمایند. بنابراین ضمن معرفی پیشینه ورود اصطلاح پیش خورد به طراحی تعاملی، وجوه تشابه و تمایز آن با مفاهیم بازخورد و افردنس به همراه جداول تحلیلی بطور دقیق مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و انواع پیش خورد با ذکر مثال های کاربردی معرفی شده است و در پایان الزامات کاربرد پیش خورد در طراحی محصولات تعاملی، در قالب ده دستورالعمل کاربردی ارائه شده است، که می توانند چک لیست مناسبی برای طراحی پیش خوردها و ارزیابی سطوح رابط کاربری محصولات تعاملی باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the concept and application of feedforward in interactive design

نویسنده [English]

  • Ebrahim Bagheri Taleghani
Assistant professor, Industrial design department, Semnan University, Senman, Iran
چکیده [English]

The term "feedforward" has been adopted from the control theory and it is less than two decades that has been introduced to the field of interactive design; but unfortunately, interactive product designers still lack the proper understanding of the term; and it can be clearly stated that the lack of clarity in contrasting with other concepts such as feedback and affordance, which have been introduced to the field of design in recent decades, has also made it less used in interactive design. however, the appropriate application of feedforward in this scope, can increase product usability, thus improves the user’s interaction with the product.
Interactive design is the design of purposeful and two-way user-product relationship, which is mediated by the interface as well as the context; accordingly, the aforementioned items (user, product, interface and context) can be considered as structural components of interactive design. On the other hand, in an interaction, there are other components that enable purposeful, effective, and reciprocal communication between the user and the product, and are considered the principles governing the interactive relationships, or the executive components of an interaction. In the interactive design process, after studying the structural components and the design goals, three components of feedback, feedforward and affordance and their interdependence must be properly studied and analyzed in order to design a purposeful and mutual communication of user with the product. Based on the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate and analyze the relevant concepts of the term feedforward, by analogy with the concepts of feedback and affordance, and providing practical examples to clarify its application in the field of interactive design; so while fully understanding the subject, designers can properly use it in designing interactive products.
This study by purpose is both fundamental and applied, and is descriptive-analytical in method. Therefore, while introducing the background entry of the term "feedforward" into interactive design, aspects of its similarity and distinction with the concepts of feedback and affordance have been carefully analyzed and investigated with the application of analytical tables; also types of feedforward (including: Inherent, Augmented, Functional, Hidden, False, Nested, Sequential, …) are introduced with applied examples. In analytical tables, for each type of feedforward, the type of user communication skill to understand the feedforward, how it can be presented in the intended product, the usage and the type of information it transmits to the user, and some examples are summarized. This way, designers can gain a good understanding of the types of feedforwards and their applications by comparing and identifying aspects of similarity and differentiation to apply them correctly in the design of interfaces. At the end of the article, the most important requirements for the application of feedforward in the design process, are presented in the form of ten practical guidelines. It seems that after studying and understanding the concepts presented in this paper, the application of guidelines will play a significant role in the proper design of interactive products.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Feedforward
  • Feedback
  • Affordance
  • Usability
  • Interactive design
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